Have you ever had an eye irritation that makes you feel like removing it and getting a new one?

In this article, we are going to introduce you to different ocular diseases, causes, recommended Curative Spectacles, and Preventive Measures with Eye clinics and Optometrics Near you.

The eye is a vital part of the body; therefore, we cannot do without it. Many people in the world have one or two minor problems with their eyes. However, some of these eye problems if not well taken care of and managed can lead to permanent blindness.

Therefore, proper eye check-ups with optometrists and treatment with ophthalmologists are something everyone should often do.

At the end of this article, you must have gotten a good understanding of many of the causes of eye defects, and if you already have symptoms, you can be better positioned to correct them on time before they get worse

List of 15 The Most Common Eye Defects, Symptoms, causes and Treatments 

Eye Cataract

This condition becomes imminent and noticed when the lens that focuses light clearly at various distances is clouded or covered.

Symptoms of Eye Cataract

  • Cloudy vision,
  • high sensitivity to light,
  • poor vision at night and double vision

Causes of Eye Cataract

  • Aging,
  • diabetes,
  • smoking,
  • obesity,
  • too much exposure of the eyes to sunlight,
  • high blood pressure,
  • eye surgery gone bad and tiny lens fragments.

Solutions to Eye Cataract

  • Surgery,
  • the implant of transparent artificial lens,
  • general anesthesia,
  • Paco emulsification (creating an incision to break up and remove the cataract.
  • Not smoking,
  • wearing sunglasses,
  • eating enough vegetables, and having regular visits to specialists.

2. Glaucoma: 

There are three types namely: chronic open angled glaucoma, secondary glaucoma and closed angle glaucoma. Generally, they are imminent when the delicate nerve layers of the retina are damaged due to pressure inside the eye.

Symptoms of Glaucoma

  • Eye pain,
  • red eye,
  • blurred vision,
  • vision loss,
  • headache,
  • nausea or vomiting,
  • enlarged cornea,
  • tearing and cloudy eyes

Causes of Glaucoma

  • Smoking,
  • untreated eye problem or disorder as inflammation of the inner eyes,
  • eye injury,
  • eye tumor,
  • diabetes,
  • bleeding inside the eyes,
  • serious cataract,
  • congenital problems and steroid medication.

Solutions to Glaucoma

  • Medical surgery,
  • regular eye check-ups which may involve measuring eye pressure,
  • eye drops,
  • oral medication,
  • micro surgery to lower pressure in the eyes.
  • Exercise,
  • quit smoking especially marijuana,
  • eat healthy balanced diet with vegetables and fish,
  • Do not take too much drinks that contain caffeine,
  • elevate your head while sleeping and drink liquid slowly.

3. Eye Strain

This occurs as aftermath of overusing the eyes for a long period or engaging in some activities that requires focus (total focus) of the eyes.

Symptoms of Eye Straining

  • Dry or watery eyes,
  • burning or itching,
  • headache,
  • brow ache,
  • eye tiredness and sensation

Causes of Eye Straining

  • Long distance or steady driving,
  • steady watching of movies,
  • steady use of the computer and playing of video games as well as steady and consistent reading.

Solutions to Eye Strains

  • Artificial teardrops,
  • glasses and
  • resting the eyes every hour especially when working with computers.
  • Rest, refraining from steady watching of movies and playing computer games or video games.

4. Refractive Errors ( short sightedness, far sightedness and distorted vision)

This is a situation whereby people have either short-sightedness, which makes the person hold books closer to themselves to enable them see properly, sit close or in front of the class to view better and or farsightedness where the images are slightly behind the retina making objects blunt or blurry and distorted vision which is the combination of both blurred vision for distant objects, near objects or both, headache, irritation and itching

Causes of Refractive Errors

  • Length of the eyeball (too long or too short),
  • aging,
  • changes in the shape of the cornea and hereditary ( genetic trait)

Solutions to Refractive Errors

  • Eye glasses,
  • contact lenses,
  • refractive surgery.
  • Wearing treated glasses and contact lenses,
  • take proper sleep.

5. Watery Eyes

This is a situation where the eyes produce too many tears especially when it is sensitive to light, wind or temperature changes

Causes of Watery Eyes

  • Excessive tearing
  • Dust,
  • eye strain,
  • weather,
  • bright light,
  • allergies,
  • ingrown eyelash and
  • cold.

Solutions to Watery Eyes

  • Treat the cause as treating allergies that make your eyes watery,
  • antibiotics,
  • surgical procedure to clear blood tear duct
  • Pull inward grown eyelashes,
  • place warm wet towel on your eyes several times a day,
  • use salt water,
  • discard make up and take pills as alavert clariton.

6. Night Blindness:

This is simply difficulty in seeing in dim light. It often happens when the rod photoreceptor cells begins to die or lose its strength.

Symptoms of Night Blindness

  • Difficult to see in dark or low light
  • Vitamin A deficiency,
  • cataracts,
  • inherited diseases of the retina,
  • liver disorder,
  • glaucoma,

Solutions to Night Blindness

  • Treat the cause,
  • wear sunglasses, and
  • treat diseases as glaucoma and other related eye diseases.
  • Use brighter light for reading,
  • eat food highly rich in Vitamin A,
  • get regular eye examination, exercise and eat vegetables.

7. Dry Eye Syndrome: 

This is when tear glands cannot make enough tears. It is when the moist and transparent membrane that covers the inner eyelid and the eyeball known as the conjunctiva is inflamed. They are of several forms ranging from the one that affect one eye to that which affect both eyes.

Symptoms of Dry Eye Syndrome

  • Foreign body sensation
  • eye discomfort,
  • burning,
  • itching,
  • loss of vision,
  • sore eyes, and aching sensation.

Causes of Dry Eye Syndrome

  • Virus,
  • Bacteria,
  • infections in the lungs,
  • allergies,
  • birth control pills,
  • aging and computer use,
  • nasal decongestant, and menopause.

Solutions

  • Artificial teardrops,
  • antibiotic eye drops,
  • introduction of humidifier in the home or placing pugs in tear ducts.
  • Use protective eyewear, avoid air blowing in your eyes,
  • take breaks during long tasks,
  • and position your computer screen below eye level, stop smoking, and use of artificial tears.

8. Diabetic Retinopathy

This occurs as a result of prolonged high blood sugar associated with the two types of diabetes which prevent the retina from receiving the proper amount of nutrients it needs to maintain vision.

Symptoms of Diabetic Retinography

  • Double vision,
  • blurred vision and
  • loss of vision
  • Diabetes

Solutions to Diabetic Retinography

  • Management of diabetes,
  • laser treatment and surgery.
  • Keep your blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol level under control,
  • maintain good diet,
  • have regular eye examination and
  • treat other pending eye problems.

9. Conjunctivitis

Thus is the discharge of thick sticky mucus on one or both eyes and thereby resulting to pink eyes or red eyes. Sometimes the mucus are yellow or green in colour. They are highly contagious.

Symptoms of Conjunctivitis

  • Tearing,
  • burning,
  • discharge or stickiness,
  • itching,
  • eye pain and red eyes

Causes of Conjunctivitis.

  • Virus,
  • bacteria,
  • allergies,
  • exposing irritating substances into the eyes,
  • cold, and
  • exposing the eyes to dirts.

Solutions to Conjunctivitis

  • Antibiotic/ antihistamine,
  • eye drops or ointment,
  • contact lenses.
  • Maintain good hygiene by washing hands often,
  • covering your mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing,
  • use clean towel,
  • change pillowcases often.
  • Do not touch your eyes with your hands.
  • Stop using eye cosmetics as mascara and do not share cosmetics or personal eye care items.

10.) Astigmatism

This is often combined with near-sightedness and farsightedness which occurs when the clear cornea has non round curvature like a football or teaspoon.

Symptoms of Astigmatism

  • Some bojecys appear clear and others blurry.
  • Lack of single point of focus, random inconsistent vision pattern and headache.
  • Genetics,
  • stress and tension in the neck muscle,
  • untreated eye injury or disease and or surgery.

Solutions to Astigmatism

  • Glasses,
  • contact lenses,
  • surgery,
  • LASIK and toric Intraocular lenses.
  • Exercise.
  • Families that have a history of astigmatism should take their children to eye examinations.
  • Regular eye examinations.

11Retinal Detachment

This is when small holes develop in areas of the retina and this causes the retina to be thinned or damaged which will lead the clear liquid filling the eye to pass behind the retina and wear it off.

Symptoms of Retina Detachment

  • Sudden flashes of light in vision,
  • sudden flashes of shadow in vision,
  • seeing spots,
  • blurred vision,
  • inability to see in dim light,
  • partial loss of vision,
  • vision loss and sensitivity of light.

Causes of Retina Detachment

  • Moderate or extreme near-sightedness,
  • previous eye surgery or injury,
  • previous retinal detachment and inherited thinness of retinal tissue.
  • Laser surgery,
  • wearing safety goggles and eye gears.

Solutions to Retina Detachment

  • Use safety goggles,
  • get regular eye care and
  • eye examination at least every year or two.
  • Seek medical attention if you notice any of the symptoms and signs.

12. Colour Blindness

This is a common disorder of the retina’s light sensitive photo receptor cells which respond to different coloured light rays.

There are two types:

  1. cones which work best in bright light and rods;
  2. which work best in dim light.

Symptoms of Color Blindness

  • Inability to distinguish between shades of red and green, oranges, browns etc.
  • and seeing colours as duller than they appear,
  • confusing reds with black.

Causes of Color Blindness

  • Leukaemia,
  • brain disease,
  • nervous system disease,
  • rheumatoid arthritis,
  • eye injury and diseases like glaucoma or macular degeneration and
  • Genetic traits.

Solutions to Color Blindness

  • Special glasses,
  • contact lenses,
  • using tinted eye glasses or red tinted contact lens on one eye.
  • Get regular eye examinations and get a health care provider to align you to healthy lifestyle.
  • Treat the disease that causes it.

13.) Presbyopia:

This is a vision blurred at a normal reading distance in people. It occurs when the eye develops insufficient and not enough power used for focusing when reading or performing other tasks.

Symptoms of Presbyopia

  • Blurred vision,
  • headache, and
  • eye strain after reading.
  • Holding article at a distance to make letters clearer for reading,
  • difficulty in reading small prints and
  • blurred vision when using a cell phone.

Causes of Presbyopia

  • Old age.
  • Bifocal spectacles or glasses,
  • lens implants,
  • wearing of corrective lenses or
  • undergoing refractive surgery and
  • the use of sunglasses.

Solutions of Presbyopia

  • Eye exercises,
  • control diseases as diabetes and
  • high blood pressure.
  • Check blood glucose,
  • wear sunglasses,
  • take vitamins,
  • wear protective eyeglasses when participating in activities that could cause eye injury and get regular eye examinations.

14.) Strabismus

This occurs when one or two of the six muscles that are attached to each eye to help it turn and rotate starts having or find it difficult to perform its functions or the muscles are weak.

Causes of Strabismus

  • Eyes do not look in the same direction at the same time,
  • blurred vision,
  • double vision,
  • eye strain,
  • headaches, and
  • difficulty in reading,
  • fatigue, and
  • jittery vision.

Causes of Strabismus

  • Birth trauma,
  • brain injury,
  • cerebral palsy,
  • congenital maldevelopment,
  • refractive errors,
  • hydrocephalus and neurologic problems.
  • Muscle surgery and glasses.

Solutions to Strabismus

  • Stopping it from getting worse by getting regular eye examinations
  • and monitoring children through infancy for easy detection.

15.) AmblyopiaIt

This can also be called double vision which occurs when the two eyes are looking at different images at the same time. This mainly occurs in children.

Symptoms of Amblyopialt

  • Blurred vision,
  • wandering eyes (eyes that appear as if they do not work together),
  • squinting,
  • poor depth perception,
  • bumping into objects on one side and
  • tilting ones head to view things.

Causes of Amblyopialt

  • Stroke,
  • severe hit to the head,
  • cataracts,
  • sagging eyelid,
  • strabismus and genetic traits.

Solutions to Amblyopialt

  • Patching of the eyes, and
  • consistent use of eye drops into the better eye.
  • Getting regular eye examinations and stopping it from getting worse.

I trust that by now, you must have gotten a whole lot of information as to the activities you engage in that are detrimental to your eye health. Please share this post to your friends and family.

Peradventure you already have an eye infection and you are in need of an optometrics for eye examination, regardless of where you are in Nigeria, we are actually creating a compedium of best eye clinics in Nigeria, it takes a lot of hard work and interviews to get them all, however you can take a look at one of the best eye clinics in portharcourt

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